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[This article belongs to Volume - 26, Issue - 02]

Colorectal Cancer and Its Determinants: A Comprehensive Literature Review

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious public health issue that requires urgent attention. The incidence and mortality of CRC vary by geographic region. This literature review aims to demonstrate an understanding of the current state of knowledge on the factors associated with colorectal cancer. There are modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with CRC. The non-modifiable factors include age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, occupation, family history of CRC, history of other diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, etc. The modifiable factors include obesity, physical activity, diet, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, consumption of Aspirin and oral Contraceptive Pills, etc. These risk factors can cause the manifestation of no signs and symptoms in the early stages of the disease to very severe ones later in the advanced stages of CRC. Recognizing these risk factors is crucial because it is the first step in preventing CRC or treating colorectal cancer patients early.