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[This article belongs to Volume - 25, Issue - 07]

Empagliflozin, the Benefits and Unwanted Effects Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes: A Real-world Study

Sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are novel antidiabetic medications with cardiorenal benefits. To the best of my knowledge, no real-world prospective studies evaluating the benefits and adverse events of SGLT-2i exist in Saudi Arabia. This study aims to assess empagliflozin’s adverse effects, short-term effects on heart failure, and treatment satisfaction. This prospective study was conducted among patients with type 2 diabetes who were prescribed Empagliflozin tablets as a primary treatment, or in combination with other antihyperglycemic medications. The project was carried out at the Diabetes Center at King Fahad Specialty Hospital, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia during the period from August 2022 to March 2023. A structured questionnaire based on demographic data, empagliflozin side effects, and heart failure symptomatology was used. Out of 132 patients with type 2 diabetes (the body mass index was 26±8.12) hypertension, previous stroke, and urinary tract infection was evident in 31.8%, 4.5%, and 8.3% respectively. Diabetic ketoacidosis was reported in 2.3% and heart failure in 8.3%. Heart failure improves regarding the cough severity (72.7%), dyspnea (18.1%), and lower limb swelling (0.9%). The patients scored 19.3±6.69 in treatment convenience and 16.81±8.41 in somatic symptoms, and only3.76±3.38 in treatment satisfaction. Conclusion –Empagliflozin improved heart failure symptoms with no increased incidence of mycotic genital and urinary tract infections and ketoacidosis. Severe hypoglycemia, toe amputations, and necrotizing fasciitis were not observed. Drug satisfaction regarding empagliflozin was low, however, the drug convenience and somatic symptoms scores were good. Furthermore, large multicenter studies capturing the reason for poor drug satisfaction are needed.