Acomplicated endocrine illness called polycystic overy syndrome (PCOS) is marked by metabolic and hormonal abnormalities, and it often goes hand in hand with obesity. Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines that play crucial roles in regulating energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and reproductive function. PCOS ranges from 2%-26%, leptin and adiponectin are produced by adipocytes as well as control neuroendocrine activity and energy balance. This research sought to determine how the leptin and adiponectin affected on PCOS in obese Iraqi patients and involved 120 independent females (60 patients and 60 controls) collecting blood during the second and fifth days of the cycle of menses. Measured serum leptin, adiponectin, and lipid profile levels by ELISA kit and spectroscopy. P-value <0.001 when comparing leptin between two groups, as well as a positive correlation of leptin with BMI For individuals with PCOS's leptin/adiponectin ratio. the ROC analysis of the ratio of leptin to adiponectin shows an AUC of 0.80, i.e., it may be used as a diagnostic marker for PCOS. The greater levels of leptin were observed in PCOS patients as contrasted to controls, pointing to a possible function for leptin in the development of PCOS. But On the other hand, reduced levels of adiponectin were explained, suggesting impaired insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue dysfunction in PCOS patients. Additionally, it was shown that leptin levels and the clinical indicators of PCOS severity had a favorable link. these results imply that dysregulated levels of leptin and adiponectin may be involved in the onset and progression of PCOS in obese Iraqi patients.