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[This article belongs to Volume - 26, Issue - 03]

Parkinson's disease (A prion disease that starts at young age), the role of gut microbiota: a literature-review.

Parkinsonism is the second most common brain degenerative disorder and could be disabling and distressing to the patients. The pathophysiology is hypothesized to start at a young age. The disease is rising and is projected to reach a million and a half by the year 2030 in the USA. Currently, there is no disease-modifying therapy for this disabling disorder, targeting gut microbiota is a cheap implementable modality of therapy. The current review assessed the relationship of gut microbiota to Parkinsonism. An electronic literature search was carried out in PubMed using the keywords: Gut microbiota, Parkinsonism, Parkinson's disease, and gut microbiota and movement disorders, 1182 manuscripts were identified, and the number stood at 17 after removing irrelevant articles, duplications, and applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. There were 17 studies, 15 on humans and two were animal experimental studies. The studies on humans were twelve case-control studies, a randomized controlled study, and two prospective cohorts. The studies included 1516 participants, 16.7% of the studies were conducted in the USA, 44.4% were published in Europe, and 38.9% were from Asia. All the studies showed the abundance of certain gut microbiota, a reduction in some, and microbiota products including short-chain fatty acids and Indican in the urine are associated with motor and autonomic features of Parkinson's disease. The current study observed that gut microbiota may play an integral role in the pathogenesis of Parkinsonism and can be targeted as a cheap effective measure in Parkinson's disease.